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Federal Education Programs » NCLB School Improvement » Restructuring Reports & Articles

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Improving Low-Performing Schools: Lessons from Five Years of Studying School Restructuring under No Child Left Behind

Author(s): Caitlin Scott, Nancy Kober
Published: April 13, 2010

On Dec 7, 2009, CEP held a forum in Washington, D.C. to discuss CEP's five-year study of schools in restructuring under NCLB. The event included a discussion of CEP's research on schools in restructuring under NCLB in six states — California, Georgia, Maryland, Michigan, New York and Ohio — and in 23 districts and 48 schools within those states. Panelist included an official from the U.S. Department of Education, as well as education leaders from states and school districts, and principals of successfully restructured schools. This report summarizes the presentations and discussion at that meeting. 

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Beyond Restructuring: Ohio Retools State Support for High-Need Districts Through Differentiated Accountability

Author(s): Maureen Kelleher
Published: September 3, 2009

This report describes Ohio's efforts to assist schools in restructuring during school year 2008-09 and reports on the state's participation in the NCLB differentiated accountability pilot program.

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Differentiating and Simplifying: Transforming School Restructuring under No Child Left Behind in New York

Author(s): Caitlin Scott, Elizabeth Duffrin, Maureen Kelleher
Published: September 3, 2009

This report describes New York’s efforts to assist schools in restructuring during school year 2008-09 and reports on the state's participation in the NCLB differentiated accountability pilot program.

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Intensified Support: Changes in School Restructuring in Georgia under the No Child Left Behind Act

Author(s): Elizabeth Duffrin
Published: September 3, 2009

This report describes Georgia's efforts to assist schools in restructuring during school year 2008-09 and reports on the state's participation in the NCLB differentiated accountability pilot program.

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Education Week Commentary: Rethinking 'Restructuring'

Author(s): Jack Jennings, Caitlin Scott, and Nancy Kober
Published: May 26, 2009

On May 13, 2009, Education Week featured an article by CEP drawing conclusions from its five years of work reviewing the restructuring of schools required by NCLB. The piece was written by Jack Jennings, Caitlin Scott, and Nancy Kober.

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Expanding Restructuring and Taking on High Schools: An NCLB Follow-up Report in Michigan

Author(s): Caitlin Scott
Published: April 2, 2009

This report describes Michigan's efforts to assist schools in restructuring during school year 2008-09 and reports on the state's implementation of a growth model to measure student performance for purposes of accountability. 

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Looking For New Ways to Make Progress: School Restructuring in Maryland, 2008-09 Follow-Up Report

Author(s): Brenda Neuman-Sheldon
Published: April 2, 2009

This report describes Maryland's efforts to assist schools in restructuring during school year 2008-09 and reports on the state's participation in the NCLB differentiated accountability pilot program.

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Top Down, Bottom Up: California Districts in Corrective Action and Schools in Restructuring under NCLB

Author(s): Caitlin Scott
Published: April 2, 2009

This report describes California's efforts to assist schools in restructuring during school year 2008-09 and reports on the state's expanded approach to technical assistance, which includes public as well as private providers.

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A Call to Restructure Restructuring: Lessons from the No Child Left Behind Act in Five States

Author(s): Caitlin Scott
Published: September 23, 2008

This report synthesizes findings from CEP's research on how the No Child Left Behind Act's school restructuring requirements are being implemented in Michigan, California, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia. Document reviews and interviews with state officials were conducted in the five states, and case study research was carried out in 19 districts and 42 schools. Among the report's findings are that more schools have entered restructuring and many remain in that status for multiple years; the "any other" restructuring option is the most popular option in the states studied; and the five states varied greatly in the supports they offered restructuring schools.

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Restructuring Under the No Child Left Behind Act in Maryland: 2007-08 Follow-Up Report

Author(s): Brenda Neuman-Sheldon
Published: September 12, 2008

This report, CEP’s third annual review of Maryland’s efforts to restructure schools under the No Child Left Behind Act, finds that (1) although between school years 2006-07 and 2007-08 the number of schools in the restructuring implementation phase declined slightly, there was a drastic increase in the number of schools entering restructuring planning; (2) more restructuring schools are choosing to replace most or all of their staff (including principals) as a strategy; and (3) the “turnaround specialist” option for restructuring is losing favor in Maryland. The report’s findings are based on interviews with state officials, case studies of four school districts and 10 schools within those districts.

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Uncharted Territory: An Examination of Restructuring Under NCLB in Georgia

Author(s): Elizabeth Duffrin, Caitlin Scott
Published: August 28, 2008

This report describes Georgia's school restructuring efforts under the No Child Left Behind Act, including findings from interviews with state officials and regional administrators and case studies of five schools in three school districts: Atlanta Public Schools, Muscogee County School District, and Stewart County School District. Key findings from the report include: (1) the number of Georgia schools implementing restructuring has declined since 2004 and a substantial number have exited; (2) restructuring plans in Georgia tend to focus on state priorities for school improvement; (3) the small number of schools in restructuring, as well as the state’s willingness to invest additional dollars in improving them, has allowed Georgia to provide intensive intervention in schools; and (4) Georgia imposes requirements beyond those in federal law on schools that have implemented restructuring for two years without making adequate yearly progress. 

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It Takes More Than a Hero: School Restructuring in Ohio Under the No Child Left Behind Act

Author(s): Maureen Kelleher, Caitlin Scott
Published: August 7, 2008

This report describes Ohio's school restructuring efforts under the No Child Left Behind Act, including findings from interviews with state officials and case studies of nine schools in four school districts: Cincinnati Public Schools, Cleveland Metropolitan School District, Mansfield City Schools, and Mount Vernon City Schools. Key findings from the report include: (1) despite holding steady for the previous three years, the number of Ohio schools in restructuring rose from 56 schools in 2006-07 to 130 schools in 2007-08; (2) only 7 of the 177 Ohio schools ever in restructuring have successfully exited; (3) districts in Ohio that receive federal improvement funds must share data and permit state officials to visit their schools; and (4) while some Ohio schools have received attention for choosing to replace their entire staffs, most report doing so reluctantly and advise other schools to do so only as a last resort.

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Open Letter to District of Columbia Public School Officials on School Restructuring

Author(s): Jack Jennings and Caitlin Scott
Published: May 28, 2008

To assist officials of the District of Columbia Public Schools with their efforts to develop and implement school restructuring plans consistent with the No Child Left Behind Act, on May 28, 2008, the Center on Education Policy sent an open letter to Chancellor Rhee, State Superintendent Gist, and Board President Bobb outlining the key lessons we have learned from studying the NCLB school restructuring process. CEP has examined school restructuring in Michigan for four years, and restructuring in California and Maryland for three years. This summer, CEP will also issue reports on the restructuring process in Georgia and Ohio. The key lessons shared with DCPS officials are based on examining data related to restructuring in those five states as well as detailed case studies of 19 districts and 42 restructuring schools within those districts.

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The Sit Down Dinner: Formalizing Restructuring Under the No Child Left Behind Act in Michigan

Author(s): Caitlin Scott, Maureen Kelleher
Published: April 22, 2008

This report describes Michigan's school restructuring efforts under the No Child Left Behind Act, and includes findings from case studies of nine schools in four school districts: Detroit Public Schools, Flint Community Schools, Harrison Community Schools, and Willow Run Community Schools. Key findings from the report include (1) more Michigan schools are in restructuring due to a greater number of high schools entering restructuring; (2) the state offers additional assistance and monitoring to restructuring schools through intermediate school districts and other regional entities; (3) turnaround specialists remain the most popular restructuring option; and (4) federal Title I funds increased, but state financial difficulties hinder restructuring.

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Managing More Than a Thousand Remodeling Projects: School Restructuring in California

Author(s): Caitlin Scott
Published: February 7, 2008

This report describes California’s school restructuring under the No Child Left Behind Act, and also includes findings from case studies of nine schools in four school district: Grant Joint Union, Oakland Unified, Palmdale Elementary, and Tahoe-Truckee Joint Unified.

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CEP Testimony on NCLB School Restructuring

Author(s): Caitlin Scott
Published: January 24, 2008

On January 24, 2008, Dr. Caitlin Scott, CEP consultant, testified before California’s Little Hoover Commission about school restructuring under the No Child Left Behind Act. The Little Hoover Commission is an independent state oversight agency that investigates state government operations and aims to promote efficiency, economy, and service. The testimony is based on CEP studies of restructuring in California, Maryland, and Michigan, as well as CEP’s five-year study of NCLB, our annual reports on Title I funding, and our 2007 study of state capacity.

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Making Mid-Course Corrections: School Restructuring in Maryland

Author(s): Brenda Neuman-Sheldon
Published: December 5, 2007

This report describes findings from case studies of 10 Maryland schools undergoing restructuring in accordance with the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The ten schools are located in four school districts in Maryland: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public Schools; Baltimore County Public Schools; and Prince George’s County Public Schools. Interviews were also conducted with state officials.

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Beyond the Mountains: An Early Look at Restructuring Results in California

Author(s): Caitlin Scott
Published: March 1, 2007

This study examines the No Child Left Behind Act's restructuring process in California. The number of California schools in NCLB restructuring nearly doubled in the last year, increasing from 401 schools in 2005-06 to 701 in 2006-07, or roughly 8% of California schools. CEP's study found that California schools in restructuring implementing multiple reform efforts tailored to individual school needs were more likely than other schools in restructuring to meet AYP targets in English language arts.

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What Now? Lessons from Michigan About Restructuring Schools and Next Steps Under NCLB

Author(s): Caitlin Scott
Published: March 1, 2007

CEP's third review of school restructuring in Michigan finds that over half of Michigan's 90 restructuring schools improved student achievement enough to meet the state's AYP targets for two consecutive years, allowing them to graduate out of the school improvement designation altogether. A CEP analysis of the restructuring approaches used indicates that no single factor is most responsible for improving student achievement. Instead, schools that implemented five or more reforms over the past two years were significantly more likely to exit restructuring than were other restructuring schools.

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Building on State Reform: Maryland School Restructuring

Author(s): Brenda Neuman-Sheldon
Published: September 20, 2006

This report summarizes the State of Maryland’s strategy in dealing with 79 schools that are in NCLB’s restructuring phase because they have missed adequate yearly progress targets for five or more consecutive years. The report also highlights several schools in restructuring or planning for restructuring in Prince George’s County Public Schools, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Anne Arundel County Public Schools.

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Wrestling the Devil in the Details: An Early Look at Restructuring in California

Author(s): CEP
Published: February 1, 2006

This look at selected school districts in California that are restructuring under the No Child Left Behind Act may offer insights for other schools that must reevaluate their structures.

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Hope but No Miracle Cures: Michigan's Early Restructuring Lessons

Author(s): Caitlin Scott, Nancy Kober, Diane Stark Rentner, Jack Jennings
Published: November 1, 2005

Progress report on three Michigan school districts undergoing the restructuring phase of the No Child Left Behind Act.

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Makeovers, Facelifts, or Reconstructive Surgery: An Early Look At NCLB School Restructuring In Michigan

Author(s): Caitlin Scott
Published: November 1, 2004

Examination of the restructuring phase mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act in three Michigan school districts.

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