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This report describes findings from case studies of 10 Maryland schools undergoing restructuring in accordance with the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The ten schools are located in four school districts in Maryland: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public Schools; Baltimore County Public Schools; and Prince George’s County Public Schools. Interviews were also conducted with state officials.
In this report, we present a portrait of how some Arizona educators, students, and families are faring with the state exit exam, known as Arizona’s Instrument to Measure Standards or AIMS. In particular, we examine how Arizona’s exit exam policy is influencing the education of English language learners (ELLs)—a group of students that is caught in the middle of challenges and controversy about exit exams and education in Arizona. This report also attempts to identify the effects of the exit exam on ELLs in Arizona and to understand why districts and high schools in Arizona continue to struggle to raise pass rates for ELLs.
Despite problems with the federal administration of the Reading First program, this CEP report finds that the program is widely credited by state and local officials for lifting the achievement of students who receive Reading First services. Overall, more than three-fourths of states and two-thirds of districts with Reading First grants reported that the program’s assessment and instructional programs were important causes of gains in student achievement. Further, the report finds that Reading First’s impact is felt far beyond the participating schools, with more than half of Reading First districts using elements of Reading First in non-Reading-First schools and in the upper grades. Similarly, states reported that more than 3,000 non-Reading-First districts participated in state-led Reading First professional development.
This report describes findings from a series of interviews with education leaders in 22 states. These interviews were conducted with the intent of providing a context for better understanding the achievement trends identified in CEP's June 2007 report, Answering the Question That Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased Since No Child Left Behind? Several key findings that emerged from the interviews: (1) there is limited research-based evidence that corroborates or explains achievement trends or monitors instructional impact; (2) many states have made changes in their testing systems since NCLB took effect in 2002, often in ways that have caused "breaks" in the compatibility of test data and made it invalid to track trends over several years; (3) many states are actively pursuing additional changes in their assessment systems that will continue to affect the comparability of test data in the future, and many states indicated that they intend to increase the amount of test data available to the public; and (4) almost half of the states interviewed emphasized the need for federal technical assistance (and often funding) to help states and school districts develop the capacity to collect and analyze the complex assessment and other data required by NCLB.
This study, based on an analysis of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988-2000, finds that once family background characteristics are taken into account, low-income students attending public urban high schools generally performed as well academically as students attending private high schools. The study also found that students attending traditional public high schools were as likely to attend college as those attending private high schools. In addition, the report also finds that young adults who had attended any type of private high school were no more likely to enjoy job satisfaction, or to be engaged in civic activities at age 26, than those who had attended traditional public high schools.
On September 10, 2007, Jack Jennings, CEP's president, testified before the U.S. House of Representatives' Education and Labor Committee on the Miller/McKeon Discussion Draft of ESEA reauthorization legislation.
This report looks at the new developments in the implementation of state high school exit exams in the 26 states that currently implement or plan to implement these exams. The report focuses on the efforts made at the state and local level to raise initial pass rates for all students, help students who fail on their first attempt, and close the achievement gap.
Some information on Mississippi’s profile, page 111, has been updated (December 2007).
Since the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law in 2002, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) has been monitoring the effects of this important national policy. This paper presents CEP’s recommendations for changes to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by NCLB. These recommendations grow out of the main findings of CEP’s research on the effects of NCLB.
This report discusses funding for states and schools districts under the federal Title I, Part A program for school year 2007-08. (Title I is the largest federal program assisting elementary and secondary schools, and contains the key accountability provisions under the No Child Left Behind Act.) The report highlights the impact of annual poverty count updates on the distribution of funds and discusses the mandatory state reservation of funds for school improvement activities.
This report examines the amount of time spent during the school week on core academic subjects and how that allocation of time across subjects has changed since school year 2001-02 when NCLB was enacted. The report finds that approximately 62% of school districts increased the amount of time spent in elementary schools on English language arts and or math, while 44% of districts cut time on science, social studies, art and music, physical education, lunch or recess.
Note: Although the overall findings of this report have not changed, some of the specific numbers have been revised since its original publication to correct initial contractor data tabulation errors. To review the specific changes made, please click on "Report with Specific Revisions in Tracking".
This report examines the kind of assistance that schools in improvement receive and how effective district and state officials believe that assistance to be. The report's findings are based on CEP's annual survey of 50 state departments of education; our nationally representative annual survey of districts; and 12 case study districts involving interviews with district and school officials.
On June 7, 2007 Jack Jennings, CEP's president, testified before the U.S. House of Representatives ' Education and Labor Committee 's Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education. Mr. Jennings was asked by the Subcommittee to testify on CEP's report, Answering the Question That Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased Since No Child Left Behind?
As part of its comprehensive, multiyear study of state and local implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, the Center on Education Policy hosted a roundtable discussion on May 1, 2007 with leaders from 25 organizations to address potential improvements to the students with disabilities’ provisions of NCLB. For more information about this meeting see the meeting summary and guiding principles for reauthorization of ESEA/NCLB and other supporting material below provided by Nancy Reder and Stanley Rabinowitz, guest speakers invited to initiate our discussion.
As part of its comprehensive, multiyear study of state and local implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, the Center on Education Policy hosted a roundtable discussion on March 20, 2007 with leaders from 25 organizations to address potential improvements to the English language learners’ provisions of NCLB. For more information about this meeting see the meeting summary and other supporting material below provided by Diane August and Stanley Rabinowitz, guest speakers invited to initiate our discussion.
Using testing data from all 50 states, this study addresses two key questions in the debate surrounding the No Child Left Behind Act: has student achievement increased and have achievement gaps narrowed since NCLB was enacted in 2002?
The second report in a series of CEP publications on the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act examines the capacity of state education agencies to carry out the requirements of NCLB. An analysis of survey data from all 50 states and interview data of 15 high-ranking state education officials from 11 states revealed four major capacity challenges: (1) limitations in staffing and infrastructure; (2) inadequate federal and state funding; (3) a lack of sufficient guidance and technical support from the U.S. Department of Education; and (4) barriers in NCLB and within state education agencies.
The Center on Education Policy was asked to testify before the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education on March 14, 2007. The testimony highlights CEP's research on funding issues surrounding the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act.
This study examines the No Child Left Behind Act's restructuring process in California. The number of California schools in NCLB restructuring nearly doubled in the last year, increasing from 401 schools in 2005-06 to 701 in 2006-07, or roughly 8% of California schools. CEP's study found that California schools in restructuring implementing multiple reform efforts tailored to individual school needs were more likely than other schools in restructuring to meet AYP targets in English language arts.
Since much of the previous research on exit exams, including CEP's own work, has looked at national patterns of implementation and passing rates, this study aimed to benefit policy and practice by focusing on the local level. In particular, we conducted case studies in Jackson and Austin that examined how classroom instruction and other initiatives are preparing students for exit exams, as well as how these exams are affecting students’ engagement in learning and their plans for postsecondary education.
CEP's third review of school restructuring in Michigan finds that over half of Michigan's 90 restructuring schools improved student achievement enough to meet the state's AYP targets for two consecutive years, allowing them to graduate out of the school improvement designation altogether. A CEP analysis of the restructuring approaches used indicates that no single factor is most responsible for improving student achievement. Instead, schools that implemented five or more reforms over the past two years were significantly more likely to exit restructuring than were other restructuring schools.
This report describes state efforts to carry out the supplemental educational services requirements. It is the first in a series of CEP publications on the NCLB implementation that will report on the results of our 2006 surveys of officials from 50 state educational agencies and a national sample of school districts, as well as case study research.
As part of its comprehensive, multiyear study of state and local implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, the Center on Education Policy hosted two meetings last fall with leaders from nearly two dozen education organizations to address potential improvements to the teacher provisions of NCLB. The recommendations that received the broadest support during the two roundtable sessions are included in Principles for Reauthorizing the Teacher Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act and the Higher Education Act, which is intended to offer policymakers a set of principles to consider as they undertake reauthorization efforts.
This report summarizes the changes to state NCLB accountability plans approved by the U.S. Department of Education during 2006, and discusses the changes in and expansion of state testing programs as a result of NCLB.
Policy Brief 1: States Continue Trend Toward Higher-Level Exit Exams, More Subjects Tested
A snapshot of main features of state exit exams taken from the Center on Education Policy's August 2006 report, STATE HIGH SCHOOL EXIT EXAMS: A Challenging Year.
Policy Brief 2: Growth in High School Exit Exams Levels Off But Minority Students Affected Disproportionately
A snapshot on the number of states currently implementing or planning to implement state mandated high school exit exams, and the percentages of minority students impacted. Information taken from the Center on Education Policy's August 2006 report, STATE HIGH SCHOOL EXIT EXAMS: A Challenging Year.
Policy Brief 3: Gaps Persist in High School Exit Exams Pass Rates
A snapshot at changes in initial pass rates for all students and each of the subgroups from 2004-05. Information taken from the Center on Education Policy's August 2006 report, STATE HIGH SCHOOL EXIT EXAMS: A Challenging Year.
This report highlights the history and importance of public education in the United States, dating back to its establishment as a necessary institution for the young republic and Horace Mann’s efforts to promote a common school for all. The report focuses on how and why the U.S. system of public education came into being; the six core public missions that public schools have been expected to fulfill, such as unifying a diverse population, preparing people for democratic citizenship, and ensuring equal opportunities for all children; and why these missions are relevant today and why the nation must maintain them while pursuing reforms to help all schools live up to these core ideals.